As the war drew to a close, Woodrow Wilson set forth his plan for a "just peace. His Fourteen Points outlined his vision for a safer world. Wilson called for an end to secret diplomacy, a reduction of armaments, and freedom of the seas.
The Paris Peace Conference opened on Jan. The delegations of 27 nations harassed the Great Powers with their various and conflicting complaints and demands. The Great Powers, in turn, sent five delegates… A brief treatment of the Treaty of Versailles follows.
For full treatment, see international relations: When the German government asked U. Woodrow Wilson to arrange a general armistice in Octoberit declared that it accepted the Fourteen Points he had formulated as the basis for a just peace. The first three in particular made the important decisions.
None of the defeated nations had any say in shaping the treaty, and even the associated Allied powers played only a minor role. The German delegates were presented with a fait accompli. They were shocked at the severity of the terms and protested the contradictions between the assurances made when the armistice was negotiated and the actual treaty.
The population and territory of Germany was reduced by about 10 percent by the treaty. In the west, Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France, and the Saarland was placed under the supervision of the League of Nations until In the north, three small areas were given to Belgiumand, after a plebiscite in Schleswignorthern Schleswig was returned to Denmark.
The war guilt clause of the treaty deemed Germany the aggressor in the war and consequently made Germany responsible for making reparations to the Allied nations in payment for the losses and damage they had sustained in the war. Although economists at the time declared that such a huge sum could never be collected without upsetting international finances, the Allies insisted that Germany be made to pay, and the treaty permitted them to take punitive actions if Germany fell behind in its payments.
The Big Four, especially Clemenceau, wanted to make sure that Germany would never again pose a military threat to the rest of Europe, and the treaty contained a number of stipulations to guarantee this aim.
The German army was restricted tomen; the general staff was eliminated; the manufacture of armoured cars, tanks, submarines, airplanes, and poison gas was forbidden; and only a small number of specified factories could make weapons or munitions. All of Germany west of the Rhine and up to 30 miles 50 km east of it was to be a demilitarized zone.
The forced disarmament of Germany, it was hoped, would be accompanied by voluntary disarmament in other nations. Economic sanctions would be applied against any member who resorted to war. The league was to supervise mandated territories, the occupied Saar Basin, and Danzig and to formulate plans for reducing armaments.
Numerous concessions were made to Germany before the rise of Adolf Hitlerand by only the territorial settlement articles remained. Many historians claim that the combination of a harsh treaty and subsequent lax enforcement of its provisions paved the way for the upsurge of German militarism in the s.
The huge German reparations and the war guilt clause fostered deep resentment of the settlement in Germany, and when Hitler remilitarized the Rhineland in a violation of the treatythe Allies did nothing to stop him, thus encouraging future German aggression.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Despite support by President Woodrow Wilson, the U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles and Wilson's proposed League of Nations, which aimed to create stability in post WWI Europe.
Over the next two decades, the United States would sit on the sidelines as the underlying international tensions escalated to an even bloodier, more devastating clash. It has been shown that the Australian constitution is invalid.
But where to next? The two options.
(1) A takeover by the UN as suggested by the Institute of Taxation Research (ITR), thus fulfilling the desire of a hidden elite for world domination with all countries subject to UN rule.
ITR base their information on factual evidence, in the most part identical to that of UPP, but the ITR. The Treaty of Versailles: Peace without Justice *** The Montreal Review, December *** This essay aims to give an answer to the question "To what extent was the Treaty of Versailles a cause for the Second World War?".
In the middle half of the nineteenth century, more than one-half of the population of Ireland emigrated to the United States. So did an equal number of initiativeblog.com of them came because of civil unrest, severe unemployment or almost inconceivable hardships at home.
by James J. Atkinson Europe Between the Wars Dr. Julián Casanova University of Notre Dame 16 December World War I had brought about unprecedented human suffering in European history.
1. The Treaty of Versailles, drafted in , formally concluded hostilities between the Allies and Germany. 2. Germany was not a party to treaty negotiations but was handed peace terms in .